Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972) - British Antarctic Survey (2023)

The Contracting Parties

Recalling the agreed measures for the conservation of Antarctic fauna and flora adopted under the Antarctic Treaty signed in Washington on 1 December 1959;(1)

Acknowledging the general concern about the vulnerability of Antarctic seals to commercial exploitation and the consequent need for effective conservation measures;

Recognizing that the Antarctic seal populations are an important living resource in the marine environment that requires international agreements for their effective protection;

Recognizing that this resource must not be depleted by overexploitation and therefore each harvest must be regulated so as not to exceed the optimal level of sustainable yield;

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Recognizing that in order to improve scientific knowledge and thereby research a rational basis, every effort should be made to promote biological and other research on Antarctic seal populations and to obtain information from such research and statistics from future target operations so that others appropriate are standards can be formulated;

Considering that the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research of the International Council of Scientific Associations (SCAR) stands ready to carry out the tasks conferred on it by this Convention;

Desiring to promote and achieve the goals of conservation, scientific study and rational use of Antarctic seals and to maintain a satisfactory balance within the ecosystem,

You have agreed the following:

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Article 1: Scope

  1. This Convention applies to seas south of 60 degrees. Southern latitude with respect to which the Contracting Parties will enforce the provisions of Article IV of the Antarctic Treaty.
  2. This Convention may apply to any or all of the following types:
    • southern elephant sealroaring lion,
    • sea ​​lionHydrurga leptonyx,
    • Weddell-SiegelLeptonychotes weddelli,
    • Crab Eater Sealcarcinophage Lobodon,
    • RosssiegelOmmatophoca Rossi,
    • southern sealsArctocephalussp.
  3. The Annex to this Agreement forms an integral part thereof.

Article 2: Implementation

  1. 1. The Parties agree that the species of seals referred to in Article 1 shall not be killed or taken within the Convention Area by their nationals or by vessels flying their respective flags except in accordance with the provisions of this Convention.
  2. 2. Each Party shall adopt laws, regulations and other measures, including where appropriate a licensing system, for its nationals and for ships that fly its flag, necessary for the implementation of this Convention.

Article 3: Attached Measures

  1. This Agreement contains an Annex setting out the measures taken by the Contracting Parties. The Parties may from time to time take other measures related to the conservation, scientific exploration and rational and human use of marine resources, including requiring:
    1. allowed catch;
    2. protected and unprotected species;
    3. open and closed stations;
    4. open and closed areas, including the designation of reserves;
    5. the designation of special areas where seals will not be disturbed;
    6. Boundaries related to sex, size, or age for each species;
    7. restrictions on time and duration of day, exposure limits and sealing methods;
    8. Types and specifications of equipment and devices that can be used;
    9. catch reports and other statistical and biological records;
    10. procedures to facilitate the review and evaluation of scientific information;
    11. other regulatory measures, including an effective inspection system.
  2. The measures taken pursuant to paragraph (1) of this Article shall be based on the best available scientific and technical knowledge.
  3. The Annex may be amended periodically in accordance with the procedures set out in Article 9.

Article 4: Special permits

  1. Notwithstanding the provisions of this Convention, a Party may issue licenses to kill or capture limited numbers of seals, consistent with the objectives and principles of this Convention, for the following purposes:
    1. provision of basic food for men or dogs;
    2. provide scientific research; either
    3. to provide copies to museums, educational or cultural institutions.
  2. Each Contracting Party shall, as soon as practicable, inform the other Contracting Parties and SCAR of the purpose and content of any permit issued pursuant to paragraph (1) of this Article and thereafter of the number of seals killed or captured under such permit.

Article 5: Exchange of information and scientific advice

  1. Each Contracting Party shall provide the other Contracting Parties and SCAR with the information set out in the Annex within the timeframe specified therein.
  2. Each Contracting Party shall also, before October 31 of each year, communicate to the other Contracting Parties and SCAR information on measures taken pursuant to Article 2 of this Agreement during the preceding period of July 1 to June 30.
  3. Parties that do not have information to report under the provisions of the two preceding paragraphs must formally declare this before October 31 of each year.
  4. SCAR is invited:
    1. evaluate the information received under this article; promoting the exchange of scientific data and information between the Parties; recommend scientific research programs; recommend the collection of statistical and biological data from seal hunts in the Convention area; and propose amendments to the Annex; Is
    2. Report, based on available statistical, biological and other evidence, when capture of a seal species in the Convention Area has a significant adverse impact on the overall populations of that species or, in particular, on an area's ecosystem.
  5. SCAR is requested to notify the Trustee who will inform the parties if, in any seal season, SCAR estimates that allowable catch limits for a species are likely to be exceeded and, if so, will provide an estimate of the date by which the permissible catch limits are reached. Each Party shall then take appropriate measures to prevent its nationals and vessels flying its flag from killing or capturing seals of that species after the estimated date, until the Parties decide otherwise.
  6. SCAR may request technical assistance from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to conduct its assessments as needed.
  7. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of Article 1, the Parties shall, in accordance with their national law, transmit to each other and to SCAR for verification the statistics relating to the Antarctic seals referred to in paragraph (2). ) of Article 1. Killed or captured by their nationals and ships flying their respective flags in the area of ​​floating sea ice north of 60 degrees. southern latitude.

Article 6: Consultations between the Contracting Parties

  1. At any time after the commencement of trading through the Depositary, a Party may propose that a meeting of the Parties be convened for the following purposes:
    1. establish, by a two-thirds majority of the Contracting Parties, including the votes of all signatory States to this Convention present at the meeting, an effective system of control, including inspection, over the application of the provisions of this Convention;
    2. set up a commission to carry out such tasks as provided for in this Agreement which the Contracting Parties deem necessary; either
    3. Consideration of other proposals, including:
    1. the provision of independent scientific advice;
    2. the establishment, by a two-thirds majority, of a Scientific Advisory Committee to which some or all of the duties required under this Convention may be delegated by SCAR when commercial stamping reaches significant levels;
    3. implementation of scientific programs with the participation of the contracting parties; Is
    4. the provision of other regulatory measures, including moratoria.
  2. If one-third of the Parties agree, the Depositary shall convene such a meeting as soon as possible.
  3. A meeting shall be held at the request of either Party when SCAR reports that the capture of any species of Antarctic seal in the area to which this Convention applies is having a significant adverse impact on the overall population or ecosystem.

Article 7: Review of operations

The Parties shall meet within five years of the entry into force of this Agreement and at least every five years thereafter to review the application of this Agreement.

Article 8: Amendments to the Convention

  1. This Agreement is subject to change at any time. The text of any amendment proposed by a Contracting Party shall be submitted to the Depositary, which shall transmit it to all Contracting Parties.
  2. If one-third of the Parties request a meeting to consider the proposed amendment, the Depositary shall convene such a meeting.
  3. An amendment will come into force when the Depositary has received instruments of ratification or acceptance from all Contracting Parties.

Article 9: Amendments to the Annex

  1. Each Contracting Party may propose amendments to the Annex to this Agreement. The text of any proposed amendment will be submitted to the Depositary, who will transmit it to all Parties.
  2. Any proposed amendment shall become effective for all Contracting Parties six months after the date specified in the Depositary's notification to the Contracting Parties, if no objection has been received within 120 days of the date of notification and two-thirds of the Contracting Parties have notified the Depositary their consent in writing.
  3. If an objection is received from either Party within 120 days of the date of notification, the Parties shall consider the matter at their next meeting. If the meeting does not reach unanimity on the matter, the Parties shall notify the Depositary within 120 days of the close of the meeting of their approval or rejection of the original amendment or any new amendment proposed by the meeting. If, by the end of this period, two-thirds of the Contracting Parties have consented to such an amendment, it shall enter into force six months after the close of the meeting for the Contracting Parties which have already notified their consent.
  4. Any party that objects to a proposed change may withdraw its objection at any time, and the proposed change will be effective for that party immediately if the change is already in effect, or at the time it becomes effective under the Terms enters this article.
  5. The Depositary shall notify each Party promptly upon receipt of any approval or objection, withdrawal of an objection and entry into force of any amendment.
  6. Any State which becomes a Party to this Convention after an amendment to the Annex has come into force shall be bound by the amended Annex. Any State which becomes a Party to this Convention while a proposed amendment is pending may approve or reject it within the time limits applicable to the other Parties.

Article 10: Signature

This Convention shall be open for signature at London from June 1 to December 31, 1972 by the States participating in the Conference on the Conservation of Antarctic Seals, held at London from February 3 to 11, 1972.

Article 11: Ratification

This Agreement is subject to ratification or acceptance. Instruments of ratification or acceptance shall be deposited with the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, hereinafter referred to as the Depositary.

Article 12: Accession

This Agreement is open to accession by any State which, with the consent of the Contracting Parties, may be invited to accede to this Agreement.

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Article 13: Entry into force

  1. This Agreement shall come into force on the thirtieth day after the seventh instrument of ratification or acceptance has been deposited.
  2. Thereafter, this Convention shall come into force for any State which ratifies, accepts or accedes to it on the thirtieth day after that State deposits its instrument of ratification, acceptance or accession.

Article 14: Withdrawal

Either Contracting Party may denounce this Agreement effective June 30 of any year by giving notice before January 1 of the same year to the Depositary, which shall promptly notify the other Contracting Parties upon receipt of such notice. Any other Contracting Party may also give notice of its withdrawal within one month of receipt of a copy of such notification from the Depositary, so that the Agreement shall cease to have effect in relation to the Contract on 30 June of the same Party. who made such a note.

Article 15: Depositary Notices

The Depositary shall notify all signatory and acceding States of the following:

  1. Signing this Agreement, depositing instruments of ratification, acceptance or accession and declarations of withdrawal:
  2. the date of entry into force of this Agreement and any amendment thereof or its Annex.

Article 16: Certified copies and registration

  1. This Agreement, drawn up in the English, French, Russian and Spanish languages, each version being equally authentic, is deposited in the archives of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, which will send duly certified copies to all signatory and acceding countries.
  2. This Convention is registered by the Depositary in accordance with Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.

In witness whereof the undersigned, duly authorized, sign this Agreement.

Done at London on June 1st, 1972.

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1. Catch allowed

Each year from 1 July to 30 June inclusive, the Parties shall limit the total number of seals of any species killed or captured to the number indicated below. These numbers can be revised in the light of scientific reviews:

  1. in crab-eating seals Lobodon carcinophagus 175,000;
  2. in the case of the leopard seal Hydrurga leptonyx 12,000;
  3. in Weddell seals Leptonychotes weddelli 5,000.

2. Protected Species

  1. It is forbidden to kill or capture Ross sealsOmmatophoca Rossi, Southern Elephant Sealsroaring lion, or stamps of the genreArctocephalus.
  2. To protect the adult herd during the time of greatest concentration and vulnerability, killing or capturing of Weddell seals is prohibited.Leptonychotes weddellione year or older between September 1st and January 31st inclusive.

3. Closed season and seal season

The period between March 1st and August 31st inclusive, during which the killing or capture of seals is prohibited, is closed. The period from September 1st to the last day of February is the seal season.

4. Seal zones

Each of the hunting areas listed in this paragraph must be closed, in numerical order, to all hunting activities for the seal species listed in paragraph 1 of this Annex during the period from 1 September up to and including the last day of February. These closures begin with the same area that was closed pursuant to paragraph 2 of Appendix B of Appendix 1 of the Report of the Fifth Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting at the time of the entry into force of the Convention. After the respective blocking period has expired, the affected area will be reopened:

  • Zone 1: between 60 degrees. and 120 degrees. western longitude
  • Zone 2: Enter 0 degrees. and 60 degrees. West longitude together with that portion of the Weddell Sea west of 60 degrees. western longitude
  • Zone 3: Enter 0 degrees. and 70 degrees. east longitude
  • Zone 4: between 70 degrees. and 130 degrees. east longitude
  • Zone 5: between 130 degrees. East longitude and 170 degrees. western longitude
  • Zone 6: between 120 degrees. and 170 degrees. West longitude.

5. Sealing of Reservations

It is prohibited to kill or capture seals in the following reserves that are seal breeding areas or long-term scientific research sites:

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  1. The area surrounding the South Orkney Islands between latitudes 60°20′ and 60°56′ south and longitudes 44°05′ and 46°25′ west.
  2. The southwestern part of the Ross Sea south of latitude 76° S and west of longitude 170° E.
  3. The area of ​​Edisto Inlet south and west of a line between Cape Hallett at 72°19' S latitude, 170°18' E longitude and Helm Point at 72°11' S latitude, 170°00' E longitude.

6. Exchange of information

  1. Each Party shall, before 31 October each year, provide the other Parties and SCAR with summary statistical information on all seals killed or captured by their nationals and vessels flying their respective flags in the Convention Area in relation to the preceding period from 1 July to 30 June. This information must include by zone and month:
    1. the gross and net tonnage, braking power, number of crew members and number of days of operation of ships flying the flag of the Party;
    2. The number of adults and young individuals of each species caught.

    Upon special request, this information will be provided for each vessel along with its daily position at 12 noon on each day of operation and the catches for that day.

  2. When an industry is established, reports of the number of sea lions of each species killed or captured in each area must be submitted to SCAR in the manner and at intervals (at least one week) required by SCAR.
  3. The contracting parties shall provide SCAR with biological information, in particular:
    1. Sex
    2. reproductive state
    3. Alter

    SCAR may request additional information or materials with the consent of the parties.

  4. The Contracting Parties shall inform the other Contracting Parties and SCAR of the planned priority expeditions at least 30 days before departure from their home ports.

7. Release Methods

  1. SCAR is encouraged to report on targeting methods and make recommendations to ensure seal killing or capture is quick, painless and efficient. The Parties shall, as appropriate, adopt standards for their nationals and vessels flying their respective flags involved in the killing and trapping of seals, taking into account the views of SCAR.
  2. In the light of the available scientific and technical data, the Parties agree to take appropriate measures to ensure that their nationals and vessels flying their respective flags refrain from killing or capturing seals in the water, except in limited numbers to conduct scientific research operate with the objectives and principles of this Agreement. This research will include studies on the effectiveness of seal hunting methods in terms of humane and rational management and use of Antarctic seal resources for conservation purposes. The development and results of all scientific programs will be communicated to SCAR and the Depositary, who will forward them to the Contracting Parties.


What is the 1972 Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals? ›

Since 1972 animals have been protected under the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (CCAS). The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (CCAS), which is aimed at protecting the stocks of Antarctic seals from commercial exploitation, was signed on 1 June 1972. It entered into force in 1978.

Has the UK signed the Antarctic Treaty? ›

The Antarctic Treaty was signed in Washington on 1 December 1959 by the twelve nations that had been active during the IGY (Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, United Kingdom, United States and USSR).

Is Antarctic Treaty a real thing? ›

The Antarctic Treaty came into force on 23 June 1961 after ratification by the twelve countries then active in Antarctic science. The Treaty covers the area south of 60°S latitude. Its objectives are simple yet unique in international relations.

How many countries have signed the Antarctic Treaty 2022? ›

Since 1959, 44 other countries have acceded to the Treaty. According to Art. IX. 2, they are entitled to participate in the Consultative Meetings during such times as they demonstrate their interest in Antarctica by “conducting substantial research activity there” .

Why is the 1972 Gary convention important? ›

The National Black Political Convention, or the Gary Convention, was held on March 10–12, 1972 in Gary, Indiana. The convention gathered around ten thousand African-Americans to discuss and advocate for black communities that undergo significant economic and social crisis.

Why is the Antarctic Treaty Necessary? ›

The primary purpose of the Antarctic Treaty is to ensure "in the interests of all mankind that Antarctica shall continue forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and shall not become the scene or object of international discord." To this end it prohibits military activity, except in support of science; ...

Why is Antarctica guarded by military? ›

Answer and Explanation: Antarctica is guarded to protect its unique environment, and conduct scientific investigations. Also, it is guarded as a political symbol of cooperation among different countries, dating back to the Cold War period.

Is there unclaimed land in Antarctica? ›

Interestingly, there is still a large portion of Antarctica that remains unclaimed today. Just east of the Ross Ice Shelf lies Marie Byrd Land, a vast, remote territory that is by far the largest unclaimed land area on Earth.

Is America in the Antarctic Treaty? ›

The United States played a major role in negotiating this Treaty, which was signed in Washington, and it participates actively in all aspects of the Antarctic Treaty System. There are currently 53 Parties to the Treaty, of which 29 are Consultative Parties having the right to participate in decision-making.

Can you go to Antarctica without permission? ›

The Antarctic Treaty does not prevent tourists, military personnel or scientific researchers from being present in Antarctica - but they do require an appropriate permit from a Treaty Party.

Why can't people go to Antarctica? ›

Due to harsh conditions, extreme weather and no permanent population on the continent there are no regular passenger flights to Antarctica. Most flights transport research personnel and supply the bases. The lack of infrastructure makes it difficult to recover a stranded aircraft in case of an emergency.

Why is Antarctica not claimed? ›

Antarctica doesn't belong to anyone. There is no single country that owns Antarctica. Instead, Antarctica is governed by a group of nations in a unique international partnership. The Antarctic Treaty, first signed on December 1, 1959, designates Antarctica as a continent devoted to peace and science.

What happens if you break the Antarctic Treaty? ›

Any country that tried to seriously breach an article of the treaty would probably be reprimanded, possibly kicked out of the entire treaty, and suffer consequences in international relations with the rest of the world (the United Nations would likely intervene as well).

Does the Antarctic Treaty expire? ›

The Protocol, like the Antarctic Treaty, has no end date and can only be amended by unanimous agreement of the consultative parties. After 2048, any consultative party may request a conference to review the Protocol.

Who controls Antarctica? ›

As for the question of who owns Antarctica, the short answer is no-one. First signed by 12 nations, the Antarctic Treaty came into force in 1961 to bring disagreements over the continent's governance to an end.

What was the purpose of the national convention in 1792? ›

The National Convention was elected to provide a new constitution for the country after the overthrow of the monarchy (August 10, 1792). The Convention numbered 749 deputies, including businessmen, tradesmen, and many professional men.

What are the two main purposes of the national convention? ›

The Convention governed by means of its committees. Two of them were of essential importance: Public Safety and General Security.

What is the main purpose of the national conventions? ›

State delegates go to the national convention to vote to confirm their choice of candidates. But if no candidate gets the majority of a party's delegates during the primaries and caucuses, convention delegates choose the nominee. This happens through additional rounds of voting.

What does the Antarctic Treaty allow and not allow? ›

The Treaty obligates Parties to use Antarctica for peaceful purposes only. Any measures of a military nature, including testing of any type of weapons, are prohibited; any nuclear explosions in Antarctica and the disposal there of radioactive waste material are prohibited.

Is Antarctica guarded by military? ›

You can go to Antarctica as a tourist or as part of a scientific station and their activities or you can plan your own expedition. It is difficult to reach, stay and live in Antarctica but it isn't guarded by anyone.

Why do countries want to claim part of Antarctica? ›

Each nation had their reasons for making a claim: their role in early exploration, a continued presence in Antarctica, geographical proximity or geological connections.

How many U.S. bases are in Antarctica? ›

The three U.S. year-round research stations are located on Ross Island (McMurdo Station), at the geographic South Pole (Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station), and on Anvers Island in the Antarctic Peninsula region (Palmer Station).

Has any war been fought in Antarctica? ›

It seems a misnomer to speak of Antarctica's military history. It is the one continent on Earth on which a war has never been fought.

Is there police in Antarctica? ›

The Marshals Service became the official law enforcement entity for the South Pole through an agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U.S. Attorney for Hawaii.

What is the largest unclaimed land on Earth? ›

Marie Byrd Land (MBL) is an unclaimed region of Antarctica. With an area of 1,610,000 km2 (620,000 sq mi), it is the largest unclaimed territory on Earth. It was named after the wife of American naval officer Richard E. Byrd, who explored the region in the early 20th century.

Can you buy property in Antarctica? ›

Antarctica is the only place on the planet where the land isn't officially owned by anyone. A few countries have made land claims (for more about this, see the information box on the next page), but those claims aren't officially recognized and don't cover the entire continent.

What is the last unclaimed land on Earth? ›

The largest unclaimed territory on Earth is in Antarctica. Marie Byrd Land, a 620,000-square-mile collection of glaciers and rock formations, lies in the western portion of the southernmost continent. Because of its remoteness, no nation has ever claimed it.

How much of Antarctica is owned by the US? ›

People from all over the world undertake research in Antarctica, but Antarctica is not owned by any one nation. Antarctica is governed internationally through the Antarctic Treaty system. The Antarctic Treaty was signed in 1959 by 12 countries who had scientists in and around Antarctica at the time.

Does the US Army go to Antarctica? ›

The Department of Defense provides supplies and assists in moving personnel to and from the southernmost continent through its Joint Task Force-Support Forces Antarctica, according to a Pacific Air Forces release.

What is the US military doing in Antarctica? ›

Joint Task Forces Support Forces Antarctica (Operation Deep Freeze) Provides logistics and support for the U.S. Antarctic Program; oversees the activities of U.S. Air Force, Air National Guard, Air Force Reserve Command, Navy, and Coast Guard personnel who participate in the USAP.

Do they have hotels in Antarctica? ›

Many people are surprised to discover there are actually no hotels in Antarctica. Regardless of the total absence of hotels in the Antarctic, it is possible to stay on the continent. These Antarctic hotel alternatives range from luxury lodges to comfortable campsites.

Can you get married in Antarctica? ›

You can get married in the British Antarctic Territory (BAT). The law on who can get married in the BAT mirrors that of England and Wales, meaning all couples, including same sex couples, can apply for a marriage licence.

How much would it cost to go to Antarctica? ›

Our experts share their inside knowledge and money-saving tips to help you answer the question “How much does it cost to go to Antarctica?” The average Antarctica cruise cost is about $8,000 per person. The least expensive trips to Antarctica start at under $5,000. Luxury voyages can exceed $15,000 per person.

Can you build a house in Antarctica? ›

Take it all with you

Unlike just about any where else in the world, it is not really possible to build easily in Antarctica using naturally found materials (igloos aside which aren't permanent structures). There are no trees at all for instance and so no wood.

Can I live in Antarctica? ›

Antarctica is the only continent with no permanent human habitation. There are, however, permanent human settlements, where scientists and support staff live for part of the year on a rotating basis.

Can you go to Antarctica if you have an appendix? ›

One of the most common questions people ask is: do expeditioners need to have their appendix removed before going south? The answer is no. But doctors who are wintering at Australian Antarctic stations do have to have their appendix removed.

What was recently found in Antarctica? ›

During a recent excursion to the icy plains of Antarctica, an international team of researchers discovered five new meteorites — including one of the largest ever found on the continent. The rare meteorite is about the size of a cantaloupe but weighs a hefty 17 pounds (7.7 kilograms).

What country owns the North Pole? ›

The North Pole is not part of any nation, although Russia placed a titanium flag on the seabed in 2007. The North Pole is the northernmost point on Earth. It is the precise point of the intersection of Earth's axis and Earth's surface. From the North Pole, all directions are south.

What is Russia doing in Antarctica? ›

In Antarctica, Russia's posture relates to protecting its national interests from territorial claims over the continent by other Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) member states. Moscow views the Arctic as a strategic continuum stretching from the North Atlantic to the North Pacific.

What did the 1972 ocean Dumping Convention prevent? ›

1972 Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention) The London Convention is an international treaty that created a global system to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by ocean dumping.

What does the Antarctic Treaty prohibit? ›

The Antarctic Treaty ensures Antarctica is used solely for peaceful purposes and prohibits military activities, and disposal of radioactive waste.

What is the Antarctic Treaty when was it signed by whom and for what purposes? ›

Antarctic Treaty, (Dec. 1, 1959), agreement signed by 12 nations, in which the Antarctic continent was made a demilitarized zone to be preserved for scientific research.

How does the Antarctic Treaty protect Antarctica? ›

The Antarctic Treaty is a collection of agreements that regulate international relations regarding the continent of Antarctica. Established in 1961, the treaty forbids any military activity on Antarctica and sets aside the continent as a scientific preserve by establishing freedom of scientific investigation.


1. History Lessons for the Arctic
(Center for Strategic & International Studies)
2. A new Cold War? Why the Antarctic is on the brink of an international power struggle
3. Weddell Sea Expedition Hangout #2 | Dr. John Shears and Knowledge Bengu
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4. Science & Policy for Deep Oceans, Space, and Antarctica: Conservation
(CSaP - Centre for Science and Policy)
5. David Bresnahan, The Antarctic Treaty
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6. “How Antarctic and High Seas Protection can Save Half the Planet” - Vital Sites
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