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Proximity to sovereign space is an important principle of modern management approaches. This rationale for demarcating and recording space as a manageable area constitutes the conventions of conservation regimes. To what extent do these motivations translate into protective effectiveness? This article addresses this issue in Thermal Dome, amarine biodiversityEastern tropical Pacific hotspot on the west coast of Central America. Here, winds and ocean currents interact to create a cool, nutrient-rich upwelling system, creating rich and productive waters and thus an area of ecological and commercial importance. It is dynamic, extensibleexclusive economic zoneindividual coastal states and beyond national jurisdiction. Unfortunately, efforts to preserve the Thermal Dome are fragmented, uncoordinated and ineffective. This paper examines how the limited effectiveness of conservation management in the Thermal Dome stems from terrestrial ontologies that dominate terrestrial conservation. Using perspective in the oceaninterest, this article shows that mobility andseasonalThermal Dome challenges those standards and reflects the need to include the uniqueness of the ocean in understanding transboundary conservation of the high seas. These efforts have opened avenues for the establishment and expansion of practices in Ecologically or Biologically Significant Marine Areas (EBSAs), enhancing the sharing of Dome-up technical capabilities, scientific knowledge, and coordination frameworks.
The sea is chaotic, rhythmic and turbulent. The constant movement of living and non-living matter takes place in a distant, expansive view. "In this space of the open ocean... the spatial configuration of surface and depth is constantly changing, one becoming the other in constant intensity of movement. The depth rises to the surface and then returns to the bottom again. The surface is submerged and becomes the depth... this merging and folding Fluid the materiality of the sea represents the open sea as essential experience" (Ryan, 2012, cited in : 261). These fluid and volumetric features and the dynamic collection of activities that move in and through this complex entity contrast sharply with a terrestrial perspective in conceptualizing, mapping, and managing the ocean. These terrestrial perspectives are codified in the institutions and practices of ocean governance, which refers to "the legal and institutional framework that governs ocean space, activities, and marine resources to maintain ocean health, productivity, and resilience" . Similarly, protected areas for  are "spatial interventions based on legal and/or other institutional systems that change human relations with the environment and access to and control over resources". Spatial interventions can include techniques for mapping, demarcating and controlling these spaces (). Most importantly, the assumptions, power structures and institutions that emerge from these 'spatial interventions' shape the codification and territorialization of marine conservation and their subsequent impact on conservation effectiveness.
Therefore, this document begins with the conservation of Costa Rica's thermal domes (hereinafter referred to as "domes"), particularly by establishing them as an "Ecologically or Biologically Significant Marine Area" (EBSA) . a dynamic oceanic phenomenon, has long been recognized as a hot spot that requires effective management because it is threatened by numerous anthropogenic pressures. Its flow and fluidity pose unique challenges for zoning and management, providing insight into how protected areas should be codified and legislated. The landmark Convention on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Marine Biological Diversity in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ) has created greater urgency for such analysis, known as the Convention on the High Seas. It is a legally binding instrument under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) related to the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction . Most importantly, it enables the creation of large-scale marine protected areas on the high seas using area-based management tools. Therefore, examining the logic and dilemmas that affect the construction and regulation of the sea can provide insight into the shaping and design of future protected areas.
The study of the materiality of the ocean , ,  contributes to the material turn in cultural geography and acknowledges the material role of land . Geophysical dismantling understands territory as dynamic matter, not as a hollow, homogeneous spatiality of matter "unmanageable, changeable, flowing and flowing"  (:418). In motion, the ocean and its constituent parts create political situations that govern through their ability to resist, complicate, or cooperate. This challenges the idea that terra is an inanimate craft used for steering . In these interactive spaces, human and non-human actors interact, drawing attention to the role of ocean systems in shaping management behavior. This calls into question the central role of human actors in ocean dynamics and opens up new policy avenues that integrate a diversity of actors into the current mix of activities.
This article sheds light on the conservation management challenges of domes arising from the way they are located within and between areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ). Chapter 2 outlines efforts aimed at addressing the uniqueness of domes and addressing maritime boundary challenges in ABNJ in the face of an institutional framework based on land-based conceptualizations of sea space. Section 3 applies the concept of ocean materiality to domes to further clarify the ontological limitations of this approach to ocean governance. In Chapter 4, we saw the opportunity to create an EBSA based on ocean matter to establish a dome-centric ocean management framework. Before concluding this article, we provide some remarks in the last section.
Territorial legislation in the border area creates space for political order and rationality. However, the physical characteristics of the dome withstood these efforts on a material level. This paper argues that the design and codification of EBSA, which brings aquatics into the international framework, offers an opportunity to bridge this gap to improve environmental resilience and governance.
Introduction of a thermal dome
Located in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, on the Pacific coast of Central America, the Thermal Dome is one of the most biodiverse hotspots in the world. It has a diameter of 300 km to 1000 km and is located mainly in the north of Australia, outside the 200 nautical miles established by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea as the territorial waters and exclusive economic zones (EEZ) of the state (Figure 1). As shown in Figure 1, the dome extends over the exclusive economic zones of several Central American countries, such as Costa Rica and El Salvador.
conceptualizing the dome through marine materials
Unpacking existing views on prioritizing maritime delimitation reveals the need for a more precise ontology. This ontological adaptation first requires an understanding of the unique geophysical properties of domes as part of the oceanic moist ontology . So with this appreciation it is possible to subvert and reshape our interactions with the sea in ways that are not hindered by land.
Admire the dome's geophysical properties
Redefining dome boundaries - expanding areas of ecological or biological interest
A critical look at the preservation of contemporary domes allows us to expand our imagination of how governance can be carried out beyond the constraints imposed by earthly conceptions of liminal spaces. This author recognizes the importance of binding institutions active in the credible established state-building process of the international community, normalizing notions of territorial sovereignty and their claims. It's over though
A few notes are in order. Strengthening the legal status of the EBSA, whether through the High Seas Treaty or otherwise, will not address the limited ability of Domes-dependent countries to manage them. The lack of technical, human and financial resources to implement effective controls and ensure compliance with their exclusive economic zones has become an obstacle, especially when it comes to the management of ABNJ . Therefore, cooperation between countries remains crucial in building the capacity of regional control
This research received no specific funding from funding agencies in the public, commercial or non-profit sectors.
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Common Octopus, Curly Octopus or Various Octopuses: Octopus-specific data are needed to inform population estimates
Ocean Policy, Part 153, 2023, no. 105632
The curled octopus Eledone cirrhosa and the common octopus Octopus vulgaris can both be considered inhabitants of waters throughout the UK, although the latter is considered rare following historic population declines and severe range reductions. There is evidence of increasing octopus hunting in the UK, although it is difficult to understand the population dynamics between the two species and estimate significant stocks as most landing data is not species specific. This growing fishery, together with government plans to include octopus in fisheries management plans and a growing desire by fishermen and the public to have more fisheries certified as sustainable means that octopus landing data must be species specific. A similar situation exists for two species of megrim (Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis and L. boscii), which were originally subject to a single total allowable catch (TAC), but sustainability concerns have increased the need, and the fisheries are managed separately. We consider this work to be applicable to all other commercially important species that are currently assessed as a single unit, but where local populations may exist.
Inadequate Capacity and Marginalization of Small-Scale Fishermen Impede Effective Fisheries Management in Ghana: Insights and Recommendations for Promoting Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries
Ocean Policy, Part 153, 2023, no. 105640
The small-scale artisanal fishing (SSF) industry in Ghana is failing despite many governance structures and regulatory and policy frameworks for sector development. Sustainable management of small-scale fisheries requires a better understanding of the complexities of their management and the antecedents of transformation. Using qualitative methods and non-probability sampling techniques, we uncover the intrinsic and exogenous factors that contribute to the insufficient capacity of SSF governance groups and how this leads to their marginalization and subsequent dissonance, challenging the sector's effective governance and accountability. Low levels of formal education, a long-standing perception of fisheries as a traditional heritage that does not require formal management systems, a lack of structured leadership training in fisheries management and leadership selection processes have been identified as key areas of undercapacity in the artisanal sector. Individual fishers feel inadequately involved in fisheries decision-making processes and do not know fisheries laws and policies, due to the top-down distribution of management. The current system does not encourage local participation and coherence in the policy implementation process, which leads to further marginalization of individual fishermen, creates disharmony in the industry and ultimately leads to overexploitation of small pelagic fisheries on the brink of collapse. We propose effective and transformational governance reforms to promote sustainable fisheries in Ghana's SSF sector, primarily capacity building, inclusion, leadership reforms and shared governance.
Aquaculture, household income and inequality in coastal Vietnam
Ocean Policy, Part 153, 2023, no. 105634
Using data from the Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey 2020, we examine the relationship between aquaculture, household income and inequality in coastal Vietnam. Using two-step cluster analysis, we identified five clusters of Livelihood Strategies (LS) followed by local households. We found that about 13% of households are engaged in aquaculture, but only 6% of households are engaged in aquaculture LS, while half of households are engaged in leased LS. Our regression analysis showed that incomes in the LS cluster for aquaculture were on average higher than income from wages or the LS cluster for "other income". Interestingly, the quantile regression results showed that in the top percentile of the income distribution, those dependent on aquaculture earned higher incomes than all other subsistence clusters. This implies a positive relationship between the choice of aquaculture in a Member State and household income. In addition, we found that land use for aquaculture is positively associated with the likelihood of engaging in and earning an income from aquaculture. It is worth noting that the Gini decomposition analysis shows that the distribution of land for aquaculture and its income is extremely unequal, and tends more towards the affluent population. Given the significant positive relationship between aquaculture land and the profitability of aquaculture LS, our findings suggest that expansion of the aquaculture sector (e.g., allocation of aquaculture land use rights and/or training for aquaculture farmers) can help local households to increase their income and reduce inequality in shrinking coastal areas. areas.
Impact of COVID-19 on pilots at sea: evidence and lessons
Ocean Policy, Part 153, 2023, no. 105664
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused port congestion and disrupted global logistics and supply chains. While previous research has examined the impact on port efficiency and the economy, social issues, such as the impact on port personnel, including pilots, have been neglected. Against this background, this article examines the challenges faced by Chinese pilots during the outbreak through in-depth interviews with 28 pilots. This suggests that China's draconian pandemic control measures, rather than the pandemic itself, have compromised the physical and mental health of pilots, reduced their availability and introduced new safety risks, affecting the port's ability to pilot effectively and safely. substandard service. The findings suggest that there is a serious problem with the lack of effective mechanisms for pilots to raise their health and safety concerns and how these are addressed by port and/or local authorities. Workers' participation and participation in occupational health and safety management is problematic. These findings have implications for the management of pilot stations at the administrative and legislative level, both in business and in government.
Evolution of Marine Animal Legislation in Brazil: Progress and Gaps Between 1960 and 2020.
Ocean Policy, Part 153, 2023, no. 105638
Environmental legislation has been enacted to coordinate conservation with socio-economic development, but its effectiveness in marine ecosystems has rarely been evaluated. Large countries with high biodiversity and significant potential for industrial fishing, tourism, ocean expansion and oil and gas exploration are expected to have comprehensive and legally secure legislation to ensure long-term sustainable development. Using the Brazilian research model as a driver of biodiversity, we summarize federal legal instruments related to marine conservation between 1960 and 2020. Our goal is to improve the level of judicial certainty and biological coverage of the country's legislation. We search official databases and professional literature for marine species in laws, decisions, regulations, normative guidelines and regulations. Our research revealed a total of 443 legal instruments, more than half of which were produced after 2000. About 88% are regulations, normative directives and decrees that can be easily withdrawn without public engagement and political discussion. Laws and resolutions are the second most secure instruments after the Federal Constitution, with only 12% of instruments. Only 138 species are specifically listed in 352 instruments, accounting for only 7% of the marine animal diversity recognized by the Brazilian government. Invertebrates such as sponges, corals and echinoderms are less protected than vertebrates. Fish are the least protected group of vertebrates. Some instruments cover entire ecosystems rather than individual species, which are more effective for long-term conservation. We conclude that marine animal legislation has grown significantly since the 1960s, but remains legally weak and biologically limited.
Reflections on rescue at sea through improving the autonomy of shipping
Ocean Policy, Part 153, 2023, no. 105639
The global search and rescue (SAR) system relies heavily on merchant ships for maritime rescue and salvage operations. Traditionally, the ships on which such operations are carried out are ships with a captain and crew on board, capable at least to some extent of boarding, accommodating and providing humanitarian assistance to rescued persons. With the introduction of unmanned remotely piloted ships, the potential role of these ships in SAR systems must be carefully assessed. In this regard, policy makers should ensure that the safety of life at sea is not compromised by the commercial interests pursued in the deployment of these vessels and ensure that the contribution of these vessels to search and rescue is maximized. In the context of long-distance operations, this may require a reassessment of the responsibilities for assistance and rescue imposed on the captain of a conventional vessel, including their scope and who may be responsible. This document notes that remotely piloted drones may be needed to carry out their duties, but the technical limitations of these drones and the lack of on-board humanitarian assistance due to unmanned operations will significantly limit their range. The design and facilities of these ships should therefore be carefully considered to extend their responsibilities and thereby maximize their contribution to the safety of life at sea.
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